Engineering Book from C.H.I.P.S.

Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems
by Donald Reimert

Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems provides both a general overview and in-depth discussion of each topic, making it easy to tailor the material to students' needs.


  • Examines the protection of generators and motors at a level of depth not found in more general texts on the subject
  • Offers discussions unavailable elsewhere, such as time decrement generator fault calculations and minimum excitation limit
  • Includes steady state and dynamic stability limits
  • Discusses protective components in detail, emphasizing potential for damage such as rotor and turbine blade heating
  • Presents theoretical discussions along with examples that provide quick how-to information
  • Includes Excel® and Mathcad® workbook constructions for performing protection-related calculations including CT saturation analysis and power system swings


Generator Normal Operations

  • The Sample System
  • Generator Capability
  • Voltage Limitations
  • System Limitations
  • Generator Capability Variations with Voltage
  • Excitation System

Generator Short Circuit Calculations

  • Short-Circuit Current Characteristics
  • Generator Internal Magnetics
  • Generator Magnetic Structures
  • Generator Constants
  • Fault Current Calculations
  • Voltage Regulator
  • Practical Shortcuts
  • Short Circuit Calculation Example

Generator Differential Relay: 87G

  • Ideal Differential Relay
  • Practical Considerations
  • Percentage Differential Relay
  • Relay Characteristics
  • Minimum Operating Current Setting
  • Slope Setting
  • Sample System Differential Relay Settings
  • CT Saturation
  • Stabilizing Resistor
  • Balancing Burden
  • Time Delay
  • Frequency Response

Backup Fault Protection

  • Purpose and Implementation
  • Voltage Supervised Overcurrent Relays
  • Distance Relays

Generator Ground Fault Protection

  • Generator Grounding Considerations
  • Methods of Grounding
  • Ground Fault Protection

Unbalanced Current Protection

  • What is Negative-Sequence Current?
  • Effects of Negative-Sequence Current
  • Generator Negative-Sequence Capability
  • Sources of Negative-Sequence Current
  • In-Service (I2)^2t Duty Versus Standards
  • Unbalanced Current Protection
  • Negative-Sequence Relay Settings

Motoring Protection

  • Effects of Motoring
  • Protection
  • Sequential Trip Logic
  • Backup Protection
  • Setting Device 32
  • Applying Reversed Power Relay on the Sample System

Field Winding Protection

  • Field Ground Protection
  • Field Overcurrent Protection
  • Settings for Field Overcurrent Overvoltage Relays
  • Applying Field OC Protection on the Sample System


  • Causes of Overexcitation
  • Damage
  • V/Hz Limits
  • Protection
  • Settings
  • Differential Relay Response to Overexcitation
  • Application of V/Hz Protection on the Sample System

Abnormal Frequency Protection

  • Effect on Generator
  • Steam Turbines
  • Combustion Turbines
  • Hydro Generators
  • Excitation System
  • Protection and Settings

Minimum Excitation Limiter

  • Overview of the Minimum Excitation Limiter Application
  • Setting Criteria Background
  • Setting Criteria
  • Steady State and Dynamic Stability Considerations
  • Generator Leading VAR Capability
  • Coordination with the LOF Relay
  • System Stability Limits
  • MEL Protective Characteristic
  • MEL Dynamic Performance
  • MEL Application on the Sample System

Loss of Synchronism

  • Turbine Generator Damage
  • Transient Stability
  • Out-of-Step Protection
  • Classical Swing Impedance Characteristic
  • Dynamic Swing Representation
  • Dynamic Swing Calculations
  • Setting Consideration
  • Out-of-Step Relay: Device 78
  • Setting Out-of-Step on Sample System

Loss of Field Protection

  • System Impact
  • Generator Damage
  • Loss of Field Protection: Device 40
  • Distance Relay Schemes
  • Other Causes for LOF Relay Operations
  • LOF Relays During System Disturbances
  • Special Considerations for Hydro Units
  • Application of the LOF on the Sample System

Synchronization Protection

  • Damage
  • Synchronizing Methods
  • Synchronism Check Relays (Device 25)
  • Automatic Synchronizer (Device 25A)
  • Slow Breaker Protection
  • Settings
  • Synchronizing Equipment on the Sample System

Accidental Energization Protection

  • Generator State at Energization
  • Inadvertent Energization
  • Breaker Flashover
  • Dynamic Analysis of Three-Phase Energization from Standstill
  • Generator Damage
  • Turbine Damage
  • Energization Protection
  • Protection Provided by Native Schemes
  • Dedicated Energization Protection
  • Applying Energization Protection on the Sample System

Motor Protection

  • Motor Characteristics And Representation
  • Motor Ratings
  • Motor Characteristics
  • Motor Applications
  • Motor Starting
  • Mechanic System Considerations
  • Pump Characteristics
  • Motor Overload Protection
  • Multifunction Microprocessor Relays
  • Transient Current Evaluation
  • Special Schemes for Difficult Starts
  • Direct Temperature Measurement
  • Phase Fault Protection
  • Ground Fault Protection
  • Phase Unbalanced Protection
  • Sample Setting Calculations


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Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems
by Donald Reimert
2005 • 592 pages • $178.95 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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