Definitive Soft Drinks Handbook
from C.H.I.P.S.

Soft Drinks Companion
A Technical Handbook for the Beverage Industry
by Maurice Shachman


  • Provides thorough, practical discussions of key issues in soft drinks technology
  • Elaborates on cost factors related to technical subjects
  • Presents information in a user-friendly format

The Soft Drinks Companion: A Technical Handbook for the Beverage Industry presents key issues related to the technology of the soft drinks industry.

Drawing on more than thirty-five years of hands-on experience in the technical management of soft drinks facilities, the author deals with subjects in an informal manner without sacrificing technological thoroughness or scientific precision. The diverse subjects focus on major scientific and technical issues encountered by technical staff at all levels on a daily basis, including beverage emulsions, taste-testing, and cost factors related to technical subjects.

Stand-alone chapters provide concise explanations of scientific concepts underlying technology issues and address potential problems that both professionals and novices may face. This unique book allows for a better understanding of the practical aspects of the soft drinks industry from an insider's experience and perspective.


Introduction to Soft Drinks

  • Some Statistics
  • What is a Soft Drink?
  • Why Soft Drinks?
  • Benefits of Soft Drinks

Brix: The Basics

  • The Brix Concept
  • Density
  • Density versus Specific Gravity
  • Brix/Density Tables
  • Why is Brix Used?
  • How is Brix Measured?

Taste Testing: Theory and Technique

  • The Sense of Taste
  • Why Test for Taste?
  • When Do We Do Taste Tests?
  • Types of Taste Tests
  • Taste Testing Technique and Rules

Food Laws: General Issues

  • What are Food Laws?
  • South African Food Laws
  • Why are Food Laws included in this Technical Handbook?
  • Acts and Regulations of Food Laws
  • Soft Drinks Legislation
  • What is the Purpose of Food Laws?
  • How are Food Laws Made?
  • Enforcement of Food Laws
  • General Food Laws Regulations Applicable to Soft Drinks

Emulsions: The Cloudy Drinks

  • Cloudy Drinks
  • Emulsions as Clouding Agents
  • Flavour Emulsions
  • Emulsion Technology
  • Stokes' Law
  • Oil Density
  • Weighting Agents
  • Oil Droplet Size and Distribution
  • Stabilizers
  • Water and Other Emulsion Ingredients
  • Homogenization
  • Turbidity Strength
  • Beverage Emulsions
  • Quality Control of Beverage Emulsions

Water Treatment: The Key Process

  • Why is Water Treatment Necessary?
  • Raw Water Adverse Quality Factors
  • A Short Digression
  • Water Treatment Technology
  • The Multiple Barrier Concept
  • Multiple Barrier Water Treatment
  • Enhanced Filtration
  • Coagulation/Flocculation
  • Membrane Filtration
  • Alkalinity Reduction
  • Disinfection
  • Chlorination
  • Ozonation
  • Ultraviolet Irradiation
  • Activated Carbon Purification
  • Polishing Filtration

Brix: Sugar Inversion

  • Sugar Chemistry Terminology
  • What is Sugar Inversion?
  • Why is it Called "Sugar Inversion"?
  • Sugar Inversion and Soft Drinks Technology
  • Inversion in Final Syrups
  • Fresh Brix and Inverted Brix
  • What is the Impact of Inversion in Soft Drinks Technology?
  • How is Inverted Brix Converted into Fresh Brix?
  • How is the Fresh Brix of a Sucrose-Sweetened Beverage Determined?

Fruit Juices: A Special Technology

  • Single Strength Juice
  • Brix Acidity Correction
  • The Brix/Acid Ratio
  • Calculating the Percentage of Juice in a Beverage
  • Other Juice-related Issues
  • Other Juice-related Issues

Food Laws; Labeling the Package

  • Ingredients List
  • Soft Drinks in Vending Machines
  • The Word "Natural"
  • Claims on Soft Drinks Labels
  • Nutrition information
  • Labeling of Products for Export

Syrup Making: The Heart of the Process

  • The Syrup Proportioning System
  • Why is Syrup Proportioning Used?
  • A Little Bit of History
  • Advantages of the Syrup-making System
  • Syrup-making Technique
  • Sight-glass Versus Dipstick
  • Bulk RTD Preparation
  • A Tale of Syrup Tails

Microbiology: All About the "Bugs"

  • A Matter of Terminology
  • The Microbiologist in the Soft Drinks Industry
  • What is Micro All About?
  • General Characteristics of Microorganisms
  • Microbiological Testing
  • Fundamentals of Micro Testing Practices
  • The Membrane Filtration Method
  • Microbiological Specifications
  • Micro Testing of Factory Equipment
  • Preservatives

Syrup shrinkage: Splitting Hars?

  • What is Syrup Shrinkage?
  • Syrup Shrinkage Explanation
  • What is the Impact of Syrup Shrinkage?

Carbonation: Putting in the Fizz

  • A Little Bit Of History
  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  • Gas Volumes
  • Testing for Gas Volumes
  • Carbonating the Beverage
  • CO2 as an Ingredient Stock Item
  • Some Other Items Related to Carbonation

Unitization: A Unique Ingredients System

  • Non-unitized Systems
  • The Beverage Base Unit
  • Preparation of Units
  • The FULL UNIT Concept
  • Benefits and Advantages of Unitization
  • Outsourcing the Unitization Operation
  • General Considerations for Converting to a Unitization System

Flavours: The Magical Ingredients

  • What are Flavours?
  • Flavours and Soft Drinks
  • How Are Flavours Made?
  • Flavour Houses
  • Flavour Costs
  • How is a Soft Drink Flavour Sourced?
  • The Magic and Mystery in Flavours

Formulations: A Spreadsheet Design Template

  • Exercise Scenario Details
  • The Exercise, Step by Step

Microbiology: The Biofilm Concept

  • What is a Biofilm?
  • How are Biofilms Formed?
  • Special Characteristics of Biofilms
  • Biofilms in the Soft Drinks industry
  • Preventing Biofilms in the Soft Drink Operation

Quality: The Key to Performance

  • What is Quality?
  • Quality Management
  • Building Quality into the Soft Drink
  • Quality Building Support
  • Quality Rating Systems


  1. Brix/Density Conversion Tables
  2. Temperature Correction Tables for Refractometer Brix Readings
  3. Significance Tables for Two-Sample Preference Taste Test
  4. Significance Tables for Triangular Taste Test
  5. Acidity Correction Tables for Refractometric Brix Readings
  6. Microsoft Excel Template for Final Beverage Brix Calculation
  7. Glossary of Technical and General Terms Used in This Handbook


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Soft Drinks Companion
A Technical Handbook for the Beverage Industry
by Maurice Shachman

2004 • 280 pages • $178.95 + shipping
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