Modeling, Simulation, and Equipment Operation
by Marcio Luiz de Souza-Santos
Bridging the gap between theory and application, Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification demonstrates the operational mechanisms, modeling, and simulation of equipment for the combustion and gasification of solid fuels.
Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification clearly illustrates procedures to improve and optimize the design of future units and the operation of existing industrial systems with recommendations and guidelines from a seasoned professional in the field.
Supplies an abundance of examples, models, and exercises for step-by-step instruction on the modeling and simulation of combustion and gasification machinery.
Features of Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification:
- Clearly displays methods to build computer simulation programs that will effectively predict equipment performance
- Offers methods to formulate sound mathematical models for boilers, gasifiers, furnaces, and incinerators
- Shows how to interpret simulation results for the best design and operation of combustion and gasification equipment
- Describes key aspects of solid and gas combustion phenomena
- Provides detailed discussions of the basic and auxiliary equations used in specific projection models
- Includes applications of moving and fluidized beds
Contents
Basic Remarks on Modeling and Simulation
- Experiment and Simulation
- A Classification for Mathematical Models
Solid Fuels
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Properties
- Thermal Treatment
- Gasification and Combustion
Equipment and Processes
- Elements of Gas-Solid Systems
- Moving Bed
- Fluidized Bed
- Suspension or Pneumatic Transport
- Some Aspects Related to Fuels
Basic Calculations
- Computation of Some Basic Parameters
- Tips on Calculations
- Observations
Zero-Dimensional Models
- Basic Equations
- Species Balance and Exiting Composition
- Useful Relations
- Summary for 0D-S Model
- Flame Temperature
Introduction to One-Dimensional, Steady-State Models
- Definitions
- Fundamental Equations
- Final Comments
Moving-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model
Chemical Reactions
- Homogeneous/Heterogeneous Reactions
- Numbering of Chemical Components
- A System of Chemical Reactions
- Stoichiometry
- Kinetics
- Final Notes
Heterogeneous Reactions
- General Form of the Problem
- Generalized Treatment
- Other Heterogeneous Reactions
Drying and Devolatilization
Auxiliary Equations and Basic Calculations
- Total Production Rates
- Thiele Modulus
- Diffusivities
- Reactivity
- Core Dimensions
- Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients
- Energy-Related Parameters
- A Few Immediate Applications
- Pressure Losses
Moving-Bed Simulation Program and Results
- From Modeling to Simulation Program
- Samples of Results
Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model
- The Mathematical Model
- Boundary Conditions
Fluidization Dynamics
- Splitting of Gas Injected into a Bed
- Bubble Characteristics and Behavior
- Circulation of Solid Particles
- Entrainment and Elutriation
- Particle Size Distribution
- Recycling of Particles
- Segregation
- Areas and Volumes at Freeboard Section
- Mass and Volume Fractions of Solids
Auxiliary Parameters Related to Fluidized-Bed Processes
- Mass Transfers
- Heat Transfers
- Parameters Related to Reaction Rates
Fluidized-Bed Simulation Program and Results
- The Block Diagram
- Samples of Results
Appendices
- The Fundamental Equations of Transport Phenomena
- Notes on Thermodynamics
- Possible Improvements on Modeling Heterogeneous Reactions
- Improvements on Various Aspects
- Basics of Turbulent Flow
- Classifications of Modeling for Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Equipment
- Basic Techniques of Kinetics Determination
Index