Food Texture Handbook from C.H.I.P.S.

Texture in Food:
Volume 1 Semi-Solid Foods
edited by Brian M. McKenna

Texture is one of the most important attributes used by consumers to assess food quality. This quality is particularly important for the growing number of semi-solid foods from sauces and dressings to yoghurt, spreads and ice cream.

With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, this authoritative book summarizes the wealth of recent research on what influences texture in semi-solid foods and how it can be controlled to maximize product quality.

Part 1 reviews research on the structure of semi-solid foods and its influence on texture, covering emulsion rheology, the behaviour of biopolymers and developments in measurement.

Part 2 considers key aspects of product development and enhancement. It includes chapters on engineering emulsions and gels, and the use of emulsifiers and hydrocolloids. The final part of the book discusses improving the texture of particular products, with chapters on yoghurt, spreads, ice cream, sauces and dressings.


Part 1: Food structure and texture

  1. The rheology of emulsion-based food products
    • General characteristics of food emulsions
    • Rheological properties of dilute emulsions
    • Rheological properties of concentrated emulsions
    • Measuring the rheological properties of emulsions
    • Factors controlling emulsion rheology

  2. Phase transitions, food texture and structure
    • Rheological techniques for studying phase transitions
    • Starch gelatinisation
    • Food polymer gels
    • Phase transitions in fats
    • Crystallisation kinetics
    • Structural and textural changes due to glass transition

  3. Phase separation and food structure
    • Properties of mixed biopolymer systems
    • Mechanisms of phase separation
    • Controlling biopolymer systems

  4. The structure and texture of starch-based foods
    • The rheological properties of starch
    • Starch in multi-component food systems

  5. Biopolymer systems for low-fat foods
    • Measuring the structure of biopolymer systems
    • Understanding and controlling the microstructure of biopolymer systems

  6. Introduction to food rheology and its measurement
    • Relevance of the rheological properties of foods
    • Basic rheology
    • Measurement systems
    • On-line measurement systems
    • Instrument selection

  7. In-line and on-line rheological measurement of food
    • Requirements of an in-line or on-line sensor
    • In-line rheometry
    • In-line viscosity measurements
    • Capilarry (or tube) viscometers
    • Rotational viscometers
    • Vibrational viscometers
    • High-frequency rheometry

Part 2: Product development

  1. Engineering food emulsions
    • Energy density and emulsion formation
    • Emulsion formation, microstructure and properties
    • Emulsion stability
    • Emulsion formulation in practice: a case study

  2. The creation of new food structures and textures by processing
    • Processing, microstructure and gel formation
    • Selecting process conditions
    • Process-induced structures
    • Structure-related rheological properties

  3. Using emulsifiers to improve food texture
    • The chemistry of emulsifiers
    • Association structures with water
    • Interfacial properties of emulsifiers
    • Emulsifier-carbohydrate interactions
    • Emulsifier-fat interactions

  4. The use of hydrocolloids to improve food texture
    • The range and choice of hydrocolloids
    • Thickening characteristics
    • Gelling characteristics
    • Structure and properties of individual hydrocolloids
    • The health benefits of hydrocolloids

  5. Developing new polysaccharides
    • Developing new polysaccharides: key issues
    • Producing stable polysaccharides
    • Producing functional polysaccharides
    • Applications

  6. The rheology and textural properties of yoghurt
    • Yoghurt manufacture: an introduction
    • The main factors affecting yoghurt texture
    • Measuring the rheological and textural properties of yoghurt

  7. Controlling the texture of spreads
    • Emulsion microstructure: ingredients
    • Emulsion microstructure: processing
    • Spread stability during transport and storage
    • Analysing spread texture

  8. Factors affecting the texture of ice cream
    • The structure of ice cream
    • Influences on textural properties: ice crystallisation
    • Influences on textural properties: foam stability and melting behaviour

  9. Controlling textures in soups, sauces and dressings
    • Defining the product
    • Ingredient and product classification
    • Texturising requiremants
    • Texturising ingredients
    • Achieving the right texture
    • Improving the texture and the use of new texturing agents


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Texture in Food
Volume 1: Semi-Solid Foods

edited by Brian M. McKenna
425 pages • $264.00 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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