Food Processing and Packaging Book from C.H.I.P.S.

Thermal Processing of Packaged Foods
Second edition
by Donald Holdsworth

Thermal Processing of Packaged Foods, 2nd edition presents practical guidance on the use of various techniques for process evaluation.

This new edition discusses the physical and engineering aspects of the thermal processing of packaged foods and examines the methods that have been used to establish the time and temperature of processes suitable to achieve adequate sterilization or pasteurization of the packaged food.

  • Includes information on important new aspects of methods of retort control
  • Unlike other texts on thermal processing, the unique emphasis of this text is on processing engineering and its relation to the safety of processed foods products
  • Provides an up-to-date overview of the physical and engineering aspects of the thermal processing of packaged food
  • Discusses methods of calculation and theoretical models used to establish the required time and temperature of processes necessary to ensure the required safety of the food product

New features in this edition include:

  • The increased use of new packaging materials, including retortable pouches and the use of containers made from other plastic composite materials
  • The application of newer processing methods which use heat transfer media such as hot water, air/steam, and steam/water, which are necessary for the newer forms of packaging material
  • New methods of theoretically calculating the heat transfer characteristics during processing, including three-dimensional modeling and application of computerized fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques
  • The implications of newer models for microbial destruction
  • Revised techniques for process evaluation using computer models, including CD software
  • he development of process schedules for quality optimization in newer packaging materials
  • Important new aspects of methods of retort control



  • Thermal Processing Principles
  • Canning Operations
  • Packaging Materials
  • Some Historical Details

Heat Transfer

  • Heat Transfer by Conduction
  • Heat Transfer by Convection
  • Radiation Heating
  • Some Computer Programs

Kinetics of Thermal Processing

  • Methods of Representing Kinetic Changes
  • Kinetics of Food Quality Factor Retention

Sterilization, Pasteurization and Cooking Criteria

  • Sterilization Value
  • Cooking Values
  • Pasteurization Value
  • Minimally Processed Foods
  • Process Achievement Standards

Heat Penetration in Packaged Foods

  • Experimental Determination
  • Graphical Analysis of Heat Penetration Data
  • Theoretical Analysis of Heat Penetration Curves
  • Factors Affecting Heat Penetration
  • Simulation of Thermal Processing of Non-symmetric and Irregular-Shaped Foods Vacuum Packed in Retort Pouches: A Numerical Example

Process Evaluation Techniques

  • Determination of F-Values: Process Safety
  • The General Method
  • Analytical Methods
  • Some Formula Method
  • Mass-average Sterilizing Values
  • Some Factors Affecting F-Values
  • Microbiological Methods
  • A Guide to Sterilization Values
  • Computerised Process Calculations

Quality Optimization

  • Cooking versus Microbial Inactivation
  • Process Evaluation
  • Optimization of Thermal Processing Conditions
  • Quality Assessment Through Mass Balance

Engineering Aspects of Thermal Processing

  • Thermal Processing Equipment
  • Total and Transient Energy Consumption in Batch Retort Processing
  • Pressures in Containers
  • Mechanical Agitation and Rotation of Cans
  • Commercial Pasteurizers
  • Computer Simulation of Fluid Dynamics Heat Transfer
  • Batch Processing and Retort Scheduling
  • Simultaneous Sterilization of Different Product Lots in the Same Retort

Retort Control

  • Process Instrumentation
  • Process Control
  • Retort Control
  • Industrial Automation of Batch Retorts

Safety Aspects of Thermal Processing

  • Information Sources
  • Some Techniques for the Implementation of GMP
  • Aspects of GMP
  • Thermal Process Validation


  • Kinetic Factors for Microbial Inactivation
  • Kinetic Factors for Quality Attributes
  • Heat Penetration Protocols
  • FDA Food Process Filing


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Thermal Processing of Packaged Foods
by S. D. Holdsworth
2008 412 pages $148.00 + shipping

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