Food Processing and Preservation Book
from C.H.I.P.S.

Thermal Technologies in Food Processing edited by Philip Richardson

Thermal technologies usually represent a compromise between their enhancement of sensory characteristics and preservation and their shortcomings in reducing factors such as their nutritional properties. The need to maximize process efficiency and final product quality has led to a number of new developments, including refinements in existing technologies and the emergence of new "minimal" techniques.

Thermal Technologies in Food Processing reviews all these key developments and looks at future trends, providing an invaluable resource for all food processors


  • Reviews key developments in thermal food processing technology
  • Discusses future trends in thermal food processing
  • Considers the use of heat as both a preservation mechanism and a tool to bring about textural and structural changes in products
  • Overviews the complex science that describes the impact of heat on the quality attributes of foods
  • Focuses on recent developments and advances in thermal technology that reduce thermal damage to products during manufacture
  • Takes a brief look at non thermal technologies, including ultrahigh pressure and pulsed electric fields


  • Chapter One: Introduction
    P. Richardson, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, Chipping Campden
Part I: Conventional technologies
  • Chapter Two: Retort technology
    N. May, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, Chipping Campden
    1. The basic retort cycle
    2. Selection of container
    3. Selection of a retort
    4. The influence of heating medium on retort performance
    5. Future trends
  • Chapter Three: Continuous heat processing
    S. Emond, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, Chipping Campden
    1. Indirect heating
    2. Direct heating
    3. Holding section
    4. Future trends
Part II: Measurement and control
  • Chapter Four: Pressure and temperature measurement in food process control
    P. G. Berrie, Endress and Hauser Process Solutions AG, Reinach
    1. Pressure measurement
    2. Temperature measurement
    3. General instrument design
  • Chapter Five: Validation of heat processes
    G. Tucker, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, Chipping Campden
    1. The need for better measurement and control
    2. Validation methods: objectives and principles
    3. Temperature distribution testing
    4. Heat penetration testing
    5. Microbiological spore methods
    6. Biochemical time and temperature indicators
    7. Future trends
  • Chapter Six: Modelling and simulation of thermal processes
    B. M. Nicolai, P. Verboven and N. Scheerlinck, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven
    1. Modelling of conduction heat transfer: the Fourier equation
    2. The Navier--Stokes equations
    3. Numerical methods
    4. Applications
  • Chapter Seven: Modelling particular thermal technologies
    S. Bakalis, P. W. Cox and P. J. Fryer, University of Birmingham
    1. Processing of packed and solid foods
    2. Continuous heating and cooling processes
    3. Heat generation methods: ohmic and microwave heating
    4. Developments in the field
  • Chapter Eight: Thermal processing and food quality: analysis and control
    A. Arnoldi, University of Milan
    1. The importance of the Maillard reaction
    2. Thermal processing and food safety
    3. Thermal processing and nutritional quality
    4. Thermal processing, food flavour and colour
    5. Maillard reaction and lipid oxidation
    6. Controlling factors in the Maillard reaction
    7. Methods of measurement
    8. Application to the processing of particular foods
    9. Future trends
    10. Sources of further information and advice
Part III: New thermal technologies
  • Chapter Nine: Radio frequency heating

  • A. T. Rowley, EA Technology Limited, Chester
    1. Basic principles of RF heating
    2. Application to food processing
    3. Advantages and disadvantages of RF heating
    4. RF heating technologies
    5. Case studies
    6. Future trends in RF heating
    7. Sources of further information and advice
  • Chapter Ten: Microwave processing

  • M. Regier and H. Schubert, University of Karlsruhe
    1. Physical principles
    2. Microwave applications
    3. Modelling and verification
    4. Summary and outlook
  • Chapter Eleven: Infrared heating

  • C. Skjoldebrand, ABB Automation Systems (formerly Swedish Institute for Food Research (SIK)), Tumba
    1. Introduction: principle and uses
    2. Theories and infrared properties
    3. Technologies
    4. Equipment
    5. Applications: case studies and modelling
    6. Future trends
    7. References
  • Chapter Twelve: Instant and high-heat infusion
    J. Anderson, APV Nordic, Silkeborg
    1. Instant infusion: an introduction
    2. Instant infusion in detail
    3. Advantages and disadvantages of instant infusion
    4. High-heat infusion: an introduction
    5. The problem of heat resistant spores (HRT)
    6. High-heat infusion in detail
    7. Advantages and disadvantages of high-heat infusion
    8. References
  • Chapter Thirteen: Ohmic heating
    R. Ruan, X. Ye, P. Chen and I. Taub, University of Minnesota
    1. Introduction
    2. Ohmic heating process and equipment
    3. Monitoring and modeling of ohmic heating
    4. Major challenges and needs for future research and development
    5. References
  • Chapter Fourteen: Combined high pressure thermal treatment of foods

  • L. Ludikhuyze, A. Van Loey, Indrawati and M. Hendrickx, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven
    1. Introduction
    2. Effect of high pressure on micro-organisms
    3. Effect of high pressure on food quality related enzymes
    4. Effect of high pressure on food structure and texture
    5. Effect of high pressure on sensorial and nutritional properties of foods
    6. The use of integrated kinetic information in process design and optimization
    7. High pressure processing technology and products
    8. Conclusive remarks
    9. Acknowledgement
    10. References

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Thermal Technologies in Food Processing
edited by Philip Richardson
2001 • 256 pages • $288.95 + shipping
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