Food Microstructure Handbook from C.H.I.P.S.

Understanding and Controlling the Microstructure of Complex Foods
edited by
D. Julian McClements

Understanding and Controlling the Microstructure of Complex Foods provides coverage of the current understanding of significant aspects of food structure and methods for its control.

Part 1 focuses on the fundamental structural elements present in foods such as polysaccharides, proteins and fats and the forces which hold them together.

Part 2 discusses novel analytical techniques which can provide information on the morphology and behaviour of food materials. Chapters cover atomic force microscopy, image analysis, scattering techniques and computer analysis.

Part 3 examines how the principles of structural design can be employed to improve performance and functionality of foods.

Part 4 discusses how knowledge of structural and physicochemical properties can be implemented to improve properties of specific foods such as ice-cream, spreads, protein-based drinks, chocolate and bread dough.


Part 1: Microstructural Elements and Their Interactions

Polysaccharides: their role in food microstructure

Proteins in food microstructure formation

Structure and function of fat crystals and their role in microstructure formation in complex foods

Effects of water distribution and transport on food microstructure

Structure and function of emulsifiers and their role in microstructure formation in complex foods

Colloidal systems in foods containing droplets and bubbles

Ingredient interactions in complex foods: aggregation and phase separation

Part 2: Novel Methods to Study Food Microstructure

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques for characterizing food structure

  • AFM and other microscopic methods
  • Applications of AFM in food science
  • Applications in food technology

Confocal fluorescence microscopy (CLSM) for food structure characterisation

  • Principles of modern CLSM
  • CLSM and the study of food structure
  • Application of CLSM to food systems
  • Measuring and modelling using CLSM images

Advances in image analysis for the study of food microstructure

  • Obtaining quantitative microstructural information about food from image analysis
  • Particular difficulties in image analysis
  • Advances in image processing and measurement tools
  • Advances in image analysis techniques

Food characterisation using scattering methods

  • Techniques and instruments
  • Advantages and disadvantages of scattering methods over other methods
  • Using scattering methods to study particular structures and processes

Acoustic techniques to characterize food microstructure

  • Using acoustic techniques to study food microstructure
  • Techniques and instruments used
  • Using ultrasonic techniques to study particular structures and processes
  • Advantages and disadvantages of acoustic techniques over other methods

Modelling and computer simulation of food structures

  • Computer simulation techniques
  • Using modelling and computer simulation to study bio-molecules in foods
  • Using modelling and computer simulation to study colloidal phenomena in foods

Part 3: Microstructural-Based Approaches to Design of Functionality in Foods

Creation of novel microstructures through processing: structure formation in (semi-) solid food materials

  • The effect of processing on structure and molecular properties
  • Effect of deformation on food structure
  • Balancing deformation and solidification
  • Improving structure formation in (semi-) solid foods

Influence of food microstructure on food rheology

  • The microstructure and rheology of foods
  • Common rheological methods: small-amplitude oscillatory, shear flow and large-deformation tests
  • Theoretical rheological models and their application
  • Structural models and analysis of rheology

Influence of food microstructure on flavour interactions

  • Thermodynamics of flavour interactions
  • Kinetics of flavour release
  • Experimental systems to validate models

Relating food microstructure to sensory quality

  • Importance of studying the relationship between food microstructures and sensory properties
  • Methods to study the intra-oral behaviour of emulsions and other complex foods
  • Understanding the intra-oral behaviour of foods

Physicochemical and structural aspects of lipid digestion

  • Lipids in the human diet
  • Physicochemical and structural aspects of lipid ingestion, digestion and absorption
  • Experimental studies of lipid digestion and absorption

Nanoscale liquid self-assembled dispersions in foods and the delivery of functional ingredients

  • Association nanocolloids
  • Micellar systems and microemulsions
  • Lyotropic liquid crystals (lamellar, hexagonal, cubic phase) and corresponding dispersions (cubosomes, hexosomes, micellosomes)

Part 4: Microstructural Approaches to Improving Food Product Quality

Structure-engineering of ice-cream and foam-based foods

  • Description and formation of microstructure
  • Methods to study the microstructure of whipped cream, ice-cream and other foam-based foods

The texture and microstructure of spreads

  • Emulsion microstructure: ingredients
  • Emulsion microstructure: processing
  • Spread stability during transport and storage
  • Analysing spread texture

Microstructural approaches to the study and improvement of cheese and yogurt products

  • Casein micelles: the building blocks of yogurt and cheese
  • Structure development in cheese
  • Structure development in yogurt
  • Methods to study the microstructure of yogurt and cheese

Microstructural aspects of protein-based drinks

  • Dairy drinks: an introduction
  • Effects of processing
  • Effects of stabilising hydrocolloids
  • Improving the nutritional quality of dairy drinks

The microstructure of chocolate

  • The composition of chocolate
  • Fat structure-function relationship
  • Chocolate making process
  • Fat bloom
  • Methods to study the microstructure of chocolate
  • The microstructure of chocolate
  • Effects of processing on microstructure

Bubble formation and stabilisation in bread dough

  • Bread foam formation
  • Bread foam stabilisation
  • Liquid film composition and properties in bread foam stabilisation
  • Emulsifiers
  • Lipase
  • Conversion from foam to sponge

Food microstructure and shelf-life of emulsion and gel-based products

  • Complex food materials
  • Stability and control
  • Review of measurement techniques

Appendix: magnetic resonance methods for the study of food microstructure

  • The basic concepts
  • The interaction of distance and time scales
  • Examining microstructure by relaxation times and line shapes
  • Microstructure from diffusion measurements
  • Microstructure from NMR imaging


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Understanding and Controlling the Microstructure
of Complex Foods

edited by D. Julian McClements
2007 • 772 pages • $339.00 + shipping
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