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Wind Flow and Vapor Cloud Dispersion at Industrial and Urban Sites
by Steven R. Hanna

Wind Flow and Vapor Cloud Dispersion at Industrial and Urban Sites advances the science of vapor cloud dispersion by:

  • Describing how structures at an urban or industrial site affect dispersion, and how these effects should be treated in consequence models
  • Explaining surface roughness length (z0) and displacement length (d) so that they are clarified for readers with minimal meteorological background
  • Presenting criteria for when the structures should be considered broadly as roughness elements, or when they should be considered from the viewpoint of their wake effects
  • Defining conditions for which different models apply and providing continuous solutions for transitions between flow regimes.
  • Providing the appropriate roughness inputs to transport and dispersion models depending on conditions.
  • Demonstrating the application of these techniques through worked examples.


  • Background
  • Objectives of This Book
  • Overview
  • Definition of Scenarios and Modeling Scales

1. Overview of Meteorology and Atmospheric Dispersion

  • Definitions of Concepts and Terms
  • Engineering Background
  • Surveys of Currently Available Methods for Classifying Dispersion Coefficients for a Variety of Surface Types
  • Survey of Experiments Showing Effects or Surface Roughness Obstacles on Dispersion

2. Methods for Characterizing the Effects of Surface Roughness Obstacles on Flow

  • Required Flow Characteristics for Input to Transport and Dispersion Models
  • Consideration of Flow Above and Below the Tops of the Obstacles
  • Flow above the Surface Roughness Obstacles
  • Flow Through an Obstacle Array
  • Summary of Recommended Methods for Estimating zo, d, and Flow Characteristics Such as Wind Profiles, Friction Velocity (u*), and Turbulence Velocities in Urban and Industrial Areas

3. Integration of Roughness into Dispersion Models

  • Objectives and Fundamental Physical Concepts
  • Dispersion Models for Clouds Extending Above Hr
  • Dispersion Models for Clouds below Hr
  • Transition Methods for Clouds of Height Close to Hr within the Urban Roughness Sublayer
  • Summary and Recommendations

4. Worked Examples of Calculations of Surface Roughness Length for Seven Industrial and Urban Scenarios

  • Case I: Small (18 m by 24 m) Industrial Plant
  • Case 2: A Group of Industrial Warehouses Covering a 250 m by 250 m Area
  • Case 3: Medium-Sized (400 m by 400 m) Refinery
  • Case 4: Typical Urban Area (Chicago)
  • Case 5: Industrial Plant (Case 3) in Chicago Urban Area
  • Case 6: Industrial Plant from Case 3 Located on a Peninsula
  • Case 7: Large 4 km by 4 km Refinery in a Desert
  • Summary of Seven Cases Used for Worked Examples

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Wind Flow and Vapor Cloud Dispersion at Industrial and Urban Sites
Book + CD-ROM
by Steven R. Hanna

208 pages $142.50 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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